Art of Enameling - the origin of Meenakari


Meenakari is a traditional art form that involves decorating metal with enamel. This art form pivots around creating intricate and beautiful designs for making jewellery, decorative items, home decor articles, dining sets and much more. The history of meenakari finds its genesis in Persia. In the sixteen century, during the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan’s rule, a member of his court introduced this art form. Initially, the royal workers used meenakari artwork to adorn palace walls, ceilings and doors but gradually, at the behest of the emperor’s wife, artisans started crafting jewellery out of it as well. 

Raja Man Singh of Amber has been credited with bringing the Mughal art of meenakari to India at the hands of skilled Mughal artisans from Lahore.

To this day, Jaipur prides itself on being a brimming hub for Meenakari. In addition to Jaipur, Delhi, Punjab, Lucknow, Udaipur, Pratapgarh, and Varanasi are also famous for their meenakari artwork. Rajasthan and Gujarat are also renowned for this particular art form. 

The word ‘Meenakari’ is derived from a Persian word called Minoo, which means heaven. Ornamental use of this art form has often depicted Persian art in itself. 

Process of Making Meenakari Art

Meenakari is essentially done on a metal which is called ‘chitras’. The artisan who makes intricate meenakari designs are called ‘Meenakars’.

Let us try to understand the steps involved in making meenakari art

  • The designer or the Nacquash begins by making a design in the form of depressions on the metal that has to be enamelled.
  • After that, the artisan fills in the base with white or pink enamel. 
  • Then, various other colours are applied depending upon the design and requirement. 
  • Usually, five colours are applied to the engraved design.
  • In order to intensify the appeal of the enamel, the metal goes through intense heat. 
  • Finally, the metal is polished for finishing. The artisan can choose to apply heat on the design further to polish it. 
  • The article can further be adorned with the use of precious or semi-precious stones to give it more beauty. 

Colours used for Meenakari

The colours or the enamel that is used for filling up the design depressions on metal are not filled with any normal colours. Meenakari colours are essentially metal oxides infused with powdered glass. The true colour of the enamel comes out once the metal is heated (at 850 degrees Celcius). Artisans or meenakars often rub the designed metal with some tamarind or lime to enhance the colour of the enamel. 

Characteristics of Bridal Meenakari Art

When it comes to bridal jewellery, meenakari art is hands down the most distinguished and highly preferred art form. The value in terms of the pricing of bridal meenakari art is anchored to the choice of metal that is used for enamelling. If gold is used as a base metal, then the pricing will surge. If silver or any other metal is used, the pricing will be relatively lesser. In addition to that, the choice of stones which are used to embellish the enamel design further also contributes to the cost and makes meenakari ornaments all the more exquisite. 

Having said that, the intricacy and appeal of bridal meenakari designs depend upon the following 

Types of Meenakari 

There are broadly five types of meenakari.

  • Ek rang khula Mina

This particular type of Meenakari involves the use of a single colour to cover the metal. The colour is usually transparent and has golden outlines. 

  • Panch Rang Mina 

This involves the use of five coloured enamels to make colourful figurines or designs on the metal. The five colours that are used are safed (white), fakhtai (light blue), fakhta (dove), khula nila (dark blue) and hula sabz (green)

  • Gulabi Mina 

This is a mixed style of meenakari but the dominant colour that is used as an enamel is pink which is derived from roses. This style of meenakari is very famous in Varanasi.

  • Band Mina Khaka

In this form of enamelling, the metal is usually covered with a transparent colour and has opaque outlines instead of golden.

  • Stone carving combined with enamelling

This is a highly preferred method of jewellery designing that combines stone carving with the beautiful art of enamelling. This method is widely used in designing beautiful Kundan jewellery. 

Different applications of Meenakari Art

  • Meenakari paintings 

Meenakari paintings have been amongst the oldest expressions of this art form. These paintings are popular because of their intricate designs and use of beautiful colours. Unlike conventional paintings, meenakari paintings are done on metal or ceramic. After the designing and enamel application, the paintings are heated to properly set the colour on the artwork. 

  • Meenakari jewellery 

Meenakari jewellery is a rage amongst the brides and it is an essential part of a family’s heirloom too. By virtue of their precise designing and traditional appeal, this kind of jewellery is in a lot of trend these days. When combined with stone carving and Kundan work, the jewellery pieces become very awe inspiring. There are various pieces of meenakari jewellery like earrings, bangles, kadhas, necklaces etc.

  • Meenakari artefacts 

Many home decor items and artefacts are made using this art form. Exclusive lane has a unique collection of meenakari art products like the meenakari royal blue swan set handle, meenakari white swan hand enamelled set in metal and various other products.

  • Meenakari furniture 

There are various furniture items like beds, chairs etc. that are meenakari engraved. Such furniture items come at a premium price but they add a lot of charm and grace to the overall appeal of your home.

India is a very diverse country, and there are so many traditional art forms that are still practised here. ExclusiveLane is a platform that has committed itself to the promotion of these art forms on a global scale. Our collection showcases beautiful traditional Indian handicrafts that you are bound to love. In addition to that, our range of products are very functional, contemporary yet rich in terms of traditional representation. We have an outstanding range of Pooja essentials, kitchen accessories, home decor items, coffee mugs, tea cups, tea sets and much more. 


  • nidhi dhumal

    i have tried doing this artform before . had attended a 1 day workshop at PENKRAFT thane west , maharashtra, india . this art form turns out really great

  • yadav

    Thanks For such an Amazing blog about such art forms also if anybody is interested in training or learning such art forms then you can click on this click

  • Ana

    Meenakari art is an amazing art form which you can learn easily. I have attended a Meenakari art workshop which was at penkraft. I must say had an amazing experience, also artists or trainer there are highly knowledgeable. I will recommend it to everyone you should also try. Giving you a link hope it will be helpful for you.

  • yadav

    Very Well Written about thanks for sharing such usefull

    you can check out our website for online course on such information

  • yadav

    Well, this is something new I can relate to old things, and interesting it’s about footwear well I find many struggles with the facts of Lippon art. you can contact us at

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